African Americans Experience and Lessons for Africans & Caribbean Immigrants etc
Written by Paul I. Adujie
New York, United States
Against all odds, African Americans have reinvented themselves and remolded the world through perseverance, creativity and superb intellect. It is almost taken for granted these days that life is good for African Americans in the United States. This is assumed, even though life is still full of racial impediments and obstacles for a majority of African Americans. But so much have been achieved through persistent dodged efforts and tenacity of African Americans. African Americans exemplify prodigious endurance.
It is crucially important that the world does not forget or gloss over the Herculean tasks it have been on the part of African Americans, who through sweat, tears and blood, have remade, re-engineered and reconfigured America for America, for the world, for immigrants of all races, but in particular, for all minorities, then continental African immigrants and other immigrants of African descent. All those who come to America ought feel and see this.
This, put in proper contexts and perspectives, requires a continental African immigrant or an immigrant from the Caribbean to US who may think as tough, the effects of race as a factor in how life is live or the vicissitudes and complications which could have been much worse, were it not the case, that African Americans have for hundreds of years fought our battles, cried our tears, sweat our sweat and bled our bloods.
Having lived in America for more than twenty years, I have learned firsthand, what I had read in books in Nigeria. The consequences of slavery, segregation, discrimination, and racism are there for all to see. The majority of African Americans are frequently in the lower echelon of society. This is so in employment, education, political offices and other endeavors of life in America. This is not a choice which they made. It was imposed upon African Americans. Lest we forget, it used to be illegal for African Americans to read or be taught to read. It is also the case that African Americans were not offered money or resources to enable them integrate into the American society after slavery was abolished.
Tepid attempts were made during the so-called Reconstruction Era, post-slavery; promises were made to African Americans, promises which were never kept. Hence therefore, we have the now familiar legend of “40 Acres and a Mule” representative of hollow promises made to African Americans which never came to fruition.
African Americans get labeled with all manners of falsehoods. There are those who would call them lazy, and the others who would African Americans for wanting a piece of the “American Pie” through legitimate employment or through education. Arguments by racists in America against African Americans can be so foolish and stupidly illogical. Imagine for instance, the illogic of it all, which is so comical, except that I refuse to laugh at these most perverse comedies which are at my peoples' expense. A group of people that are without ambitions just so happens to be the same group that a speedily snatching every employment opportunities, every college admissions opportunities through the much maligned Affirmative Action Programs? How can people get away with such contradictions or speaking from both sides of their mouths? There is no logic or rationality to racism and the above is just more proof of that.
It is now fashionable for folks to mouth the nonsense also known as post racial America, subsequent to the election of Obama as president of the United States as first of African descent. But, no one concerned with equal rights for all Americans should go fishing just yet! First because we do not know if Obama has the audacity and backbone to be of value to African Americans and continental Africans, be of value, beyond the symbolism of his election. Secondly, race remains a major factor of tremendous impact on how life is live in America. It has huge impact on housing, employment, admissions, and whether you get killed, beat and brutalized, by the police, even if you are a professor at Harvard University!
There are racists in every sphere of life, and racists in the police and law enforcement agencies who are quick to see continental Africans and peoples of African descent the same negative stereotypical way, any Nigerian or African who thinks he is in a bubble, and removed or different and insulated and immune from these attitudes towards African Americans or Jamaicans... must have his head examined! For instance, in New York City alone, since my sojourn here, there have been series of cases of police brutalities involving many Africans and peoples of African descent such as Ahmadu Diallo, Abner Louimer, Patrick Dorismond and many others. And worse, African American police officers get shot by White officers who presume them as perpetrators! And thanks to the Reverend Al Sharpton an African American, the omniscient Ombudsman, and other African Americans, rallied ceaselessly and made sure the brutalities or murders of these Africans and Caribbean immigrants went unnoticed. Al Sharpton received no personal benefits in all these. Thank Goodness for the African Americans! How can we forget Reverend Al Sharpton, the undisputed ombudsman of the Action Network in New York City, who made No Justice, No Peace a famous mantra?
How dare we forget so soon Randall Robinson and other African Americans who stared down stridently law and most vociferously at Ronald Reagan and multinational corporations and racists, in Africa's fight against apartheid and minority whites rule in Southern Africa?
It is the case that continental Africans and Caribbean immigrants in America do not have the cohesion or clout and structure, whether to assist themselves, or anyone else for that matter. It goes without saying therefore, that African American formed the bulwark of the coalitions which ensured justice in the police brutalities and egregious misconduct referenced above. So in contexts, it is easy to see why some African and Caribbean immigrants sometimes come across as union bursting scabs. Scabs which benefit from historical struggles of unions, for improvements, improvements which we now benefit from without any desire to belong to the union or contribute to union coffers by way of union dues, literal and metaphorical!
Some ignorant Nigerians, nay Africans and Caribbean immigrants sometimes tell you, how they are only in America to work, because life in home country is worse, and so, they are not here to fight Civil Rights battles, but the thing to be said or knocked into these sorts of heads is, simply that, without Civil Rights battles and wars fought mainly by these same African Americans, I, you, and these Nigerians, other continental Africans, and Caribbean immigrants would NOT have had a chance here! I am of course also familiar with the counter arguments, and I know there is ignorance on both sides, i.e. ignorant immigrants and equally ignorant natives)! But what should be emphasized is the truth, which is that our fate, our destiny are united. Informed by our common origins and checkered past, our history and our current conditions. Our struggles, economic, political and cultural are identical, whether we are on the continent, or in the larger Diaspora.
We would be the wiser when we coalesces efforts for our common good. We ought to, and should stop pretending untouched or remaining aloof when our peoples are brutalized or visited with indignity, as Professor Gates was. Obama was right when condemned the action of those stupid and perhaps bigoted police officers. What happens to African Americans should be our pain too. Sooner than later, if you live here long enough, you, your family, or children etc will have to contend with these injustices and stereotypes. It is smarter and better to join African Americans in their joys and sorrows as we navigate our lives here.
Obama is at his inspiring and motivating best when he speaks of issues plainly and forthrightly, not any attempt to mock or disparage. This is why I insist that public scolding, shaming or ridiculing is no substitute for a reasoned policy, foreign or domestic, regarding our peoples. Engagement, empowerment and coalescing is more productive and sustainable.
There is just too much infighting within us. I would be richer than all billionaires if I got a dollar every time I have heard pejoratives used by persons of African descent against other groups of African descent. In New York, I have heard enough. Such as Haitians live 20 a room, or what Haitians say of themselves, they are more sophisticated than all others. Some forget that Haitians gained political independence in 1804 from a coalition and combination of White usurpers from America to France. Haitians in America are disadvantaged by language, but on the whole the do well regardless.
How about statements such as Africans don’t shower, don’t speak English and have no finesse etc? And that Jamaicans are English speaking and better than Haitians, except that Jamaicans are rough and impolite and Trinidadians are richer than all persons from the Caribbean because they have had petroleum, except that they dance too much? Those damn medieval Africans, come here to and want to tell us what to do, you will hear. These are falsehoods and asinine generalizations which I even hate to repeat here, except to drive my point home. The more maturity that attain biologically and more intellectually aware that I become, I the more that I see the direction connection through blood, experience and history. Therefore, I have awful regret for anything, which I might have said or written in the past, which in effect besmirch our peoples even in my unguarded dullest lowest moments.
Our peoples ought to listen to the positive messages in music by such notables as the late James Brown in his “Say it Loud, I am Black and Proud” and the late Peter Tosh’s “You Are An African” and Eddy Grant’s “Hello, Hello Africa these sons of ours, serve as good examples of what should be our mindsets.
No one should come away thinking that I advocate any group over the other. Or that I wish one group to rollover and allow others to walk all over them, no!
I am by no means advocating that anyone of our general groups, let others of our groups, rollover and allow others to walk all over them. NO. But we must all learn to be sensitive, be alert, don’t always harried and hurried while ignoring the elephant in the room, so to speak. Never be oblivious of the conditions on the ground, and the history of it all, wherever you live on earth. Take steps to ensure, that you are not perceived as a snub, a rough and gruff person who in ill-attuned the persisting injustices. Again, remember the reasons why a caged bird sings.
Instead, I make bold to assert that no Jew comes from Russia, Ukraine, Israel, Argentina and all the other places in between in the world from where Jews come to America, and then, practice as first order of business, disrespect for American Jews! I doubt that there is any Jew, who emigrates from some place to America, and proceed to look down on American Jews! Quite to the contrary, they forge partnerships. No usurper no usurped.
They actively cultivate each other. They form symbiotic relationships which have been mutually beneficial. So much so that American Jews might have facilitated the emigration of a Jew from Russia.
Then they ensure the quick adjustment of status and both economic and political assimilation of the new Jewish immigrant, as such, she accelerate into the increase of American Jew’s economic and political power base. This adds to empower the Jews, it strengthens them against the odds and vagaries of life in America, and they in turn, enable excellent America pro-Israel policy through AIPAC and others. And same can be said for the Irish American, or pretty much most other ethnic group of America’s so-called melting-pot.
Continental Africans, African Americans and other peoples of African descent are broadly speaking, completely disengaged. There is a seething, if unstated antagonism. There is this mutual suspicion of intents and motives. There are these misconceptions and misperception between and within all our peoples. So, they reinvent integration and acceleration into America individually, painfully and slowly.
In both private and public conversations and debates or interactions, you would come across utterances by some immigrants who sound disdainfully contemptuous of all African Americans. In recent internet example, of such encounters that I have had, some African immigrants came across as if they were scrambling to justify the humiliations and indignities Professor Gates received in the hands of certain police officers in Cambridge Massachusetts! And their fetid defense of the police behavior met with vehement rejection by some other African immigrants as well.
On the matter of showing some respect and being sensitive to the sons and daughters of the soil, think and imagine for instance, that you are in your country, where historically, you have battled your own government for your rights, battled banks, all manner of institutions, entities even nonentities! And now comes, these clueless or undiscerning recent immigrants with condescension and superiority complexes!
I can only imagine how African Americans must feel about their life in America, and I example a snippet, to wit, I am in Nigeria struggling, and here comes a snotty clueless immigrant to Nigeria. I do probably wish to wring his neck!
African Americans’ human spirit is indefatigable and tireless, and this, despite seemingly insurmountable odds which they have faced since arriving on the shores of America, upon being snatched, brutalized, bundled in human cargoes to a strange land. Stripped and deprived of all things. Became bereft of own language, religion, culture, cohesion, family ties and even still, African Americans somehow were able to survive and thrive in a society which deprived them of materials both tangible and intangible. African Americans have triumphed in the face of stark impossibilities. African Americans have managed to become triumphal, in a country which stripped them of respect, pride, dignity and basic humanity.
It is enthrallingly exciting to be witness to profound contributions which African Americans have made to America and the world. Thinking of the checkered history of African Americans has a calming effect on me especially when I face difficulties. I often tell myself to learn to be creative in confronting the challenges which I face in American daily life. As I often ask myself what would have been my plight or predicament in America say, 50 years ago? Given my arrogance, naïve and stubborn outlook, I would have been quickly roasted on a stake like barbecued pork! Lynched to the spectacle and applause of racists!
What would have been my life and plight I often wonder? And what would have been the lives and plights of minorities and all these immigrants? Especially in particular reference to continental Africans and peoples of African descent?
As a general statement African Americans are the unsung heroes of America and in fact, the unsung heroes of the world, think of their peculiarly checkered slave history and then their triumph in the face of insurmountable odds
Imagine the rejected and despised denigrated stone becomes the cornerstone of the American super structure! Think of remarkable creations by African Americans which have enriched America and the world, even as I imagine you the reader is read my thought here while you quite likely listening to your favorite Jazz or Hip-Hop tunes
African Americans in effect have been put through the fire and driven to the wall. Slaves were beaten and brutalized terrorized for doing poorly what they have never been thought to do in the first place. The Fugitive Slave Act meant that escapee slave could be recaptured into slavery and servitude Hence the rise of Harriet Taubman's Underground Railroad. African Americans have for hundreds of years endured haunting and excruciating torments, which were physical and nowadays, institutional and visceral. What African Americans have endured and continue to endure and bear, in slavery and now in freedom should be required lessons in survival and triumph and the best of human spirit
One has to constantly wonder how it must feel for African Americans who constantly barrages of accusations from a wide spectrum of peoples who are quick to blame African Americans for being lazy and happily on welfare and public assistance seeking, a la Reagan's Welfare Queens and all. While at the same African Americans are blamed for "using" Affirmative Action Programs to garner every educational opportunities as well as employment opportunities
Clearly, both charges cannot be true! It is either that the African Americans are lazy and shiftless bums and excited public assistance dependent hounds or they are always out, like everybody else, seeking the limited or few and available educational and employment opportunities. I think the two accusations are mutually exclusive. The lazy bum could not in all probabilities be the same guy who is inflicting unemployment and reverse discrimination on the other race by grabbing every educational and employment chances! It is simply disingenuous and even fraudulent to accuse a guy of gluttony and self-inflicted starvation all in the same breath or rather simultaneously!
Such is the illogicality and perversity of those who seem to excoriate African Americans, as if just for the fun of it and the perverse fun, at the expense of the African Americans of course! It should be clear to even a casual observer, how vile, the treatments of African Americans, all through history, has been; it has had the quality of being extraordinarily repugnant and reprehensible
Lessons in Perseverance tenacity persistence; Whites won't let Scott Joplin do his ragtime Maple Leaf/Elizabethan ragtime; Whites won't let Marian Anderson sing He got the whole world in his hands. Whites won't let Paul Robeson the lawyer sing practice law or sing his songs, travel and speak against injustice. Whites won't let Jackie Robinson and others play baseball until much later. Whites won't let Dr. Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X speak about race brutality oppression. Multitudes and countless African Americans have been superb innovators in science, medicine and the arts. We should proclaim acclaimed African Americans, from the real McCoy of brakes to modern day marvel of medicine, the neurosurgeon Ben Carson MD so many others. We should never allow others to say we made no contribution to build this nation and the world!
As a general statement African Americans are the unsung heroes of America and in fact, the unsung heroes of the world, think of their peculiarly checkered slave history, then segregation and racism and then their triumph in the face of insurmountable odds!
Imagine the rejected and despised denigrated stone becomes the cornerstone of the American super structure! Think of remarkable creations by African Americans which have enriched America and the world, even as I imagine you the reader is read my thought here while you quite likely listening to your favorite Jazz or Rhythm and Blues or Hip-Hop tunes.
Unfortunately, and contrary to what proponents of post-racial America would have you believe, there remains, a profound and boundless contempt for African Americans. And sadly enough, this phenomenon is no longer limited to hatreds espoused by some White Americans and recent immigrants from all continents are liable to espouse preconceived notions and stereotypes about African Americans. In places where I have lived and worked, it occurs without fail and inexplicably so, that it comes to a point in which some person would pull me aside and tell me “nicely” to be wary of African Americans and why not to bandy together with “them” And these are usually couched as if said for my best interest! Usually for my ears only! My feeling about such persons “advising” me is usually that they do not mean well, if they are working so hard to divide us. They also leave me to wonder what exactly they say in my absence!
How was it ever possible, to have been a slave-holder and terrorist, with all brutalities it required to brand a human being as if farm animal? How was it possible to burn slaves at public burn fires to thunderous applause? Why would such criminality engender applause? Why would anyone engage in such criminally inhuman spectacle and then say he is a gentleman? How can you be any sorts of gentleman when your inhuman nonhuman debased perverse ways are so warped and twisted? You are “owner” holder of another human being? That was then, how about now? We are all post racial now? Not so fast, I say!
America is deeply driven in many ways, racially, but over several hundreds of years, America has managed to project and present herself to the whole world as the bastion of equality liberty and freedom! All you need to do to understand this is to think of such terms as the so-called Christian Gentleman Slave-owner! Of the bible belt USA! Is this not the point where you were supposed to beg someone for the spelling of oxymoron? How does anyone combine in the same sentence, a Christian, a gentleman and a slave-owner with a straight-face? I guess it is the same ingenuity which gave gumption to some to erect a church atop of a slave dungeon?
We have also witnessed the exposure of the charade and façade assumed as basic American ideals or tenets of justice. Which too frequently, is replete with permanence of double standards, with negative and impact and sordid consequences for African Americans? Everyone is familiar with the disproportionate presence of peoples of African descent among the more than one million prisoners in America. Prison and incarceration is actually a growth industry; it rapidly being privatized as well. And for anyone who is conversant with the comparisons between advantages of nurture over nature, it is easy to see the implications inherent in money being poured into the criminal justice system, not for rehabilitation, but for warehousing our people. Money better spent on funding of schools or educational institutions. Most college students do not go robbing banks or picking other peoples’ pockets!
African Americans should be seen as super citizens of America and the world. African Americans stand out as role models for Nigerians and other Africans. And many have modeled struggles as such worldwide. People around the world have used methods of political struggle for civil rights employed by African Americans since abolition through Jim Crow and now, against institutional racism. Nothing has ever been handed or given to African Americans, they have had to struggle for economic, political and civil rights some of which are now reality enjoyed by me and others.
Despite an exceedingly painful experience in America, surprisingly, African Americans remain loyal, steadfast and patriotic to America, despite the hell catching experience which African Americans have had, since arriving, the shores of America. Conversely, I could not say that a majority of Nigerians are loyal, steadfast and patriotic about matters Nigerian! This despite the fact that many Nigerians in the Diaspora, most probably received free or subsidized college and professional education in Nigeria, for which they would have owed upwards of a $100,000.00 had they had identical training or education, say, in America. Therefore, as bad or unproductive as some Nigerians may think Nigeria have been, such Nigerians actually benefited something of value anyhow. But these Nigerians are not comparatively fierce about Nigeria as African Americans are about America, despite their past and continuing ordeals! As an aside; must we measure our affections through only what we receive or personally benefit?
African Americans Are Africa Responsibility Twice.
Our defeat our weakness our default in defense of our homeland made it possible or permitted or facilitated the snatching, kidnapping and the enslavement of our kits and kin Peoples of African descent who are now scattered outside African continent. There is abundant evidence of the fierce resistances mounted by continental Africans against slavery and colonialism. In the end, we could not withstand or outduel, the invaders. Nonetheless, it is the case that Africans were not docile as revisionist would have gullible persons believe. So it is, Africa failed in her guard of her perimeters. And Africans did not subsequently invade America or any country in Europe in search and rescue of our snatched cousins. The least we can do now, is to create a conducive environment in Africa, for peoples of African descent in forced Diaspora during these several hundred years. That sadly has not happened. Some Africans now voluntarily live in the Diaspora as well, and anyone would have thought we would be closer to our Diaspora cousins more than anyone else? We ought to manage to reconnect, after these hundred years. And yes, I know there are economic and all types of pressures on recent immigrants from the continent and survival is the first and immediate concern of all immigrants. Our people need to connect and reconnect. Certainly not display disdain, distrust and contempt for ourselves. We are one.
Peoples of African descent, are scattered all over the world today, not as willing immigrants. But rather, as those who were bundled, hurled and made cargoes to various destinations outside of Africa. These are non-immigrant Africans who left African involuntarily but under compulsion and extreme brutality and under horrendous conditions and worse, were some Africans who acted collusive aiding and abetting or collaborated with the invaders; Bad as it is, collaboration should only be seen as a subset and not the main event or factor in was slave trade. No African sent memos emails or twitters demanding that slave traders from America and Europe sail hundreds of miles for slaves, as revisionist are now harping happily insisting to the applause of even some unthinking Africans. Americans and Europeans were fine Christian fellows, until they receive emails from Africans who were interested in slave trade?
It must be restated here that too many Africans taken into slavery. And those Africans are the bulk of what is now the more 500 years Diaspora Africans. Our weaknesses, our lack of killer-instincts, let the enslavement of Africans be a growth industry and profitable industry for the benefit and enrichment of others. Africans did not defend the homeland then and in every sense, it is doubtful that there is that defense now in view of our leadership quandary.
Continental Africans in the Diaspora should, if anything, aspire to make whole, all peoples of African descent who are in fact our people. We should begin by showing them respect. Then form synergies, for our collective improvements in the Diaspora and on the continent of Africa. Our presence in the Diaspora should and must be valued added to our descendants who were compelled into the Diaspora before, we the recent immigrants willingly, in search of greener pastures, joined them. Value added to our descendants’ economic, political and cultural clout. We will do better, on both sides, to dump and jettison condescension.
When will Africans defend Africa and Africans in the Diaspora?
I am in complete agreement Bolaji Akinyemi’s publicly stated idea of creating stability, development and advancement in Africa, but in Nigeria in particular; which in turn will be a bedrock for continental and Diaspora Africans; I once wrote an article in which I wondered aloud as I asked why Africans are not angry with raving umbrage with Africa's historical lot! What with slavery and then colonialism or persisting disparities and injustices?
Why is it that Africans then and now, seem not to be sufficiently outraged? Why is it that African never mounted invasions against other countries over the twin-evils that were slavery and colonialism? And why were African never sufficiently angry over the impact of Apartheid on Africans? Apartheid of which Ronald Reagan's America demanded constructive engagement? Why were Africans not the Kamikazees or the suicide bombers of the world before anyone else among oppressed and conquered peoples thought of it?
In amazement, I often marvel at the persistence and tenacity of African Americans, and peoples of African descent in the Diaspora. These are people who have been stripped of their African names, stripped of their languages, stripped of their culture, religion and their dignity and much more, even still, the persevered and they are still here, striving and making quantum progress. The least that we can do is respect, enable and support them, but certainly, not to mock them. And factually, our best interests lay in corralling our energies with theirs, for uplifting all of us across the spectrum and across the literal and metaphorical oceans. Our redemption, our collective salvations depend on this global unity of continental Africans and all peoples of African descent.
We all ought to be keenly aware that there is a sort of family conflict and an existing schema of mutual suspicion. We all ought to honestly debate and address these.
These multifaceted chasms and schisms, between African Americans, continental Africans and other peoples of African descent who interact these days in America and Europe surely need to be eliminated; these are mostly misconceptions and based on misperceptions. Home grown compelled to stay in desperate bottom, perceives the new imported desperate bottom, as clueless usurpers, who are willing to ignore ground rules and the high price already paid for minimum progress, while the transplant is busily taking full advantage and benefit of outcomes of the struggles. And halting condescension is perceived by the aloofness, nonchalance, and tone deafness of it is not my fight attitude of some newcomers.
Resolving these conflicts and mutual suspicions is crucial prerequisite for our collective progress. Continental Africans and peoples of African descent have suffered enough atrocities, calamities and catastrophes. We have witnessed enough contemptuous attitudes toward Haitian refugees in sharp contrast with the welcome which have been ever readily offered to refugees from Cuba or Sarajevo. We have been witness to dramatic responses to disasters elsewhere, such as food and aid packages being dropped from 30,000 feet by planes in the air, in the former Yugoslavia, compared with the excuses made in relation to similar human disasters in the Congo, Liberia, Somalia or Sierra Leone or Haiti.
We need to return to the great ideas of our ancestors and forbears, such as Marcus Garvey. Continental Africans and all peoples of African descent need to collectively confront our forced underachievement. There is strength in numbers, united purposeful numbers. Particularly in a globalized world, numbers drive trade, investment, good governance etc.
If for any reason on earth you have not heard or read about the following names, you should do yourself the greatest favor there is, Google, Wikipedia or go to the public library nearest to you. I might add that mentioned names are by no means exhaustive a list of our greats and extraordinary peoples of African descent who serve as our exemplars.
Let the conversation start and let the healing and unity begin in earnest.
Below as accompaniments, brief excerpts culled from web, the reader is encouraged to dig deeper on own accord and beguiling delights for the willing!
Anderson, Marian was an American contralto and one of the most celebrated singers of the twentieth century… she was denied the right to sing, this denial was particularly peculiar, for it came from women, white women, so-called Daughters of the American Revolution! Daughters of the American Revolution who did not believe in Marian Anderson’s constitutional rights! http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=Marian+Anderson&aq=f&oq=&aqi=g10&fp=uO8YWwUnn_o
Albernathy Ralph…was an American civil rights activist and leader and a close associate of Martin Luther King Jr. was one of Martin Luther King’s closest friends during the civil rights movement. His guidance can be seen in the Montgomery bus boycott. http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=ralph+abernathy&aq=0s&oq=raph+aber&aqi=g%3As1&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
Bethune Mary McCloud was an American educator and civil rights leader best known for starting a school for black students ...an African American teacher, was one of the great educators of the United States. She was a leader of women. http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=bethune+mary+mcleod&aq=9&oq=bethune+&aqi=g10&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
Wells, Ida B. …was a fearless anti-lynching crusader, suffragist, women's rights advocate, journalist, and speaker etc http://www.google.com/#hl=en&q=ida+b+wells&aq=0&oq=Ida+B+W&aqi=g10&fp=uO8YWwUnn_o
Garvey, Marcus…"Back-to-Africa" leader, was the most widely known of all the agitators for the rights of the Negro and one of the most phenomenal, in just ten years following his emigration to the United States as a laborer in 1917, Marcus Garvey rose to lead the largest black organization in history…Garvey's life and role in popular history, as well as African nationalism.
Malcolm X (Little) Fierce and fiery firebrand political activist of the most spectacular kind
If you called him uncompromising in his stances, you would be spot on! http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=malcolm+x&aq=0s&oq=malcom&aqi=g%3As10&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
King Jr. Martin Luther…was an American clergyman, activist and prominent leader in the African-American civil rights … was a great man who worked for racial equality in the United States of America
W.E.B DuBois…Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote, "history cannot ignore W.E.B. DuBois because history has to reflect truth and Dr. DuBois was a tireless explorer ... was a noted scholar, editor, http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=w.e.b.+dubois&aq=0e&oq=w&aqi=g%3Ae1g9&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
Douglass Fredrick…was an American abolitionist, women's suffragist...was one of the foremost leaders of the abolitionist movement, which fought to end slavery within the United States…galvanized the antislavery movement http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=frederick+douglas&aq=&oq=&aqi=&aq=1s&oq=frederu&aqi=g1g%3As5&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
Park, Rosa….the "mother of the civil rights movement" was one of the most important citizens of the 20th century seamstress, whose refusal to move to the back of a bus touched off the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama…Parks' refusal to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery (AL) in 1955 sparked the civil rights movement.. .she was described in the corporate media as a simple seamstress" no troublemaker "who was just too tired to give up her sit…Parks boarded a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, changing the course of the struggle for equality in the South. http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=rosa+parks&aq=&oq=&aqi=&aq=0&oq=Rosa+Park&aqi=g10&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
Farmer, James…was integral in shaping the Civil Rights movement...was a Black civil rights activist who was one of the "Big Four" leaders of the American civil a principal founder of the Congress of Racial Equality and the last survivor of the "Big Four" who shaped the civil-rights struggle http://www.google.com/#hl=en&safe=active&q=james+farmer+civil+rights&aq=&oq=&aqi=&aq=2&oq=james+farmer&aqi=g10&fp=UpDF6CxdRdw
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